North Carolina Insects and Other Arthropods

With habitats that range from nearly subtropical to subalpine mountains, North Carolina has a rich insect fauna, as documented in the series "Insects of North Carolina" (Brimley 1938, 1942; Wray 1950a, 1967a; Ahlstrom 1995). The compilation of this series relied in large part on the NCSU Insect Collection, which is unsurpassed for holdings of North Carolina insects. NCSU's collection also includes recent voucher specimens from graduate student theses and published works on basic and applied science in North Carolina, as well as material from the NCSU Plant Disease and Insect Clinic from D. L. Stephan. Noteworthy voucher collections are those of North Carolina soybean (Deitz et al. 1976) and grape (McGiffen & Neunzig 1985) arthropods. The recent acquisitions of Tom Daggy, David L. Wray and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Raleigh add significantly to our North Carolina holdings.

Some References on the Insects and other Arthropods of North Carolina

  1. Ahlstrom, K. R. [1995]. Insects of North Carolina. Fourth Supplement. Part 1: Hymenoptera. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Plant Industry Division, Raleigh, North Carolina. [ii] + 147 pp.
  2. Baker, James R. & James LaBonte, Thomas H. Atkinson, Stephen Bambara. 2009. Identification Tool for Bark Beetles of the Southeastern US. LucidĀ® v.3.4.1, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. 27695. 558 MB. [Updated November, 2010]
  3. Baker, J. R. (ed.). 1984. Insect and related pests of shrubs: some important, common, and potential pests in the southeastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Publication AG-189: [i-v], 1-199. [treats many North Carolina species]
  4. Baker, J. R. (ed.). 1994. Insect and related pests of flowers and foliage plants: some important, common, and potential pests in the southeastern United States. Revised edition. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Publication AG-136: [i]-v, 1-106. [treats many North Carolina species]
  5. Baker, J. R., C. S. Apperson, and J. J. Arends (eds.). 1986. Insect and other pests of man and animals: some important, common, and potential pests in the southeastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Publication AG-369: [i]-iv, 1-92. [treats many North Carolina species]
  6. Baker, J. R. (ed.), and M. Pizano de Marquez (translator). 1996. Insectos y Otras Plagas de las Flores y Plantas de Follaje. Ediciones HortiTecnia Ltda, Santafe de Bogota, D. C., Colombia. 105 pp. [Spanish translation of Baker 1994; treats many North Carolina species]
  7. Battle, F. V., and E. C. Turner, Jr. 1972. The Insects of Virginia: No. 3. A systematic review of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopongidae) of Virginia with a geographic catalog of the species occurring in the eastern United States north of Florida.. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 44: [i]-vi, 1-129.
  8. Bobb, M. L. 1974. The Insects of Virginia: No. 7. The aquatic and semi-aquatic Hemiptera of Virginia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 87: [i]-iv, 1-195.
  9. Brandenburg, R. L., and J. R. Baker (eds.). 1996. Insect and other pest associated with turf: some important, common, and potential pests in the southeastern United States. Revised edition. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Publication AG-268: [i]-iv, 1-108. [treats many North Carolina species]
  10. Brigham, A. R., W. U. Brigham, and A. Gnilka. 1982. Aquatic Insects and Oligocheates of North and South Carolina. Midwest Aquatic Enterprises, Mahomet, Illinois. [xi pp. + 13 individually numbered chapters] [keys to families, genera, and species]
  11. Brimley, C. S. 1936. The Psammocharidae or spider wasps of North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 52: 107-131.
  12. Brimley, C. S. 1938a. The Insects of North Carolina. Being a List of the Insects of North Carolina and Their Close Relatives. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Raleigh. 560 pp. [see also Ahlstrom, 1995, above, and Wray 1967 & 1972, below]
  13. Brimley, C. S. 1938b.  A partial bibliography of North Carolina zoology. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 54(2): 319-341. [includes many references not listed here: insect groups, pp. 331-338; other arthropods, pp. 338-340]
  14. Byers, G. W. 1976. A new Appalachian Brachypanorpa (Mecoptera: Panorpodidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 49: 433-440. [B. jeffersoni, n. sp., from Ashe County, North Carolina]
  15. Carpenter, F. M. 1933. Trichoptera from the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. Psyche 40: 32-47.
  16. Carpenter, W. G. 1962a. Ant distribution in the North Carolina Piedmont. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Society 78: 1-18.
  17. Carpenter, W. G. 1962b. Ant distribution in North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Society 78: 150-204.
  18. Catesby, M. 1731-1743. The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands. M. Catesby, London. 2 volumes. [220 color plates, some with insects]
  19. Ciegler, J. C. 1997. Tiger beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Coleopterists Bulletin 51(2): 177-192.
  20. Ciegler, J. C. 2000. Ground Beetles and Wrinkled Bark Beetles in South Carolina (Coleoptera: Geadephaga: Carabidae and Rhysodidae). Biota of South Carolina. Vol. 1. Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina. 149 pp.
  21. Cole, A. C. 1940. A guide to the ants of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee. American Midland Naturalist 24: 1-88.
  22. Daggy, T. 1970. Some North Carolina beetles (family Pselaphidae) not recorded in the Brimley-Wray lists. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 86: 176. [abstract]
  23. Daggy, T. 1973. Some beetles from North Carolina not included in the Brimley-Wray lists, and some corrections from an earlier report. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 89: 250. [abstract]
  24. Davis, L. V., and I. E. Gray. 1966. Zonal and seasonal distribution of insects in North Carolina salt marshes. Ecological Monographs 36: 275-295.
  25. Deitz, L. L., J. W. Van Duyn, J. R. Bradley, Jr., R. L. Rabb, W. M. Brooks, and R. E. Stinner. 1976 (reprinted 1980). A guide to the identification and biology of soybean arthropods in North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin. 238: 1-264.
  26. Deitz, L. L., and D. L. Stephan. 1984. Records of Diradius vandykei (Ross) in North Carolina and Virginia (Embiidina: Teratembiidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 86: 239-241.
  27. Diamond, T. D. 1970. A Taxonomic Survey of the Eosentomidae (Insecta: Protura) of the North Carolina Piedmont. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. [unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, vii + 126 pp.; key to species]
  28. Dietrich, C. H., M. J. Rothschild, and L. L. Deitz. 1999. Checklist and host plants of the treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) of North Carolina. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101: 242-262.
  29. Filka, M. E., and R. M. Shelley. 1980. The milliped fauna of the Kings Mountain region of North Carolina (Arthropoda: Diplopoda). Brimleyana 42: 1-42.
  30. Gatrelle, R. R. 1985. Papilionoidea of the south coastal area of South Carolina. So. Lepid. Bulletin 2: 1-15.
  31. Gillford, S. M., and P. A. Opler. 1983. Natural history of seven hairstreaks in coastal North Carolina. Journal of the Lepidoptera Society 37: 97-105.
  32. Gladney, W. J., and E. C. Turner, Jr. 1969. The Insects of Virginia: No. 2. The mosquitoes of Virginia (Diptera: Culicidae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 49: 1-24.
  33. Graves, R. C., A. C. F. Graves, and D. L. Wray. 1977. Collembola associated with some shelf fungi (Polyporaceae, etc.) and some other microcommunities in the highlands area of western North Carolina. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 70: 890-892.
  34. Hall, R. D., and L. H. Townsend, Jr. 1977. The Insects of Virginia: No. 11. The blow flies of Virginia (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 123: [i]-viii, 1-48.
  35. Harris, L., Jr. 1972. Butterflies of Georgia. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. xx + 326 pp.
  36. Hennessey, M. K., and M. H. Farrier. 1989. Mites of the family Parasitidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) inhabiting forest soils of North and South Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin 291: [1]-78.
  37. Hennessey, M. K., D. L. Stephan, and M. H. Farrier. 1986. Spider mites and false spider mites recorded from or expected to occur in North Carolina. Brimleyana 12: 19-27.
  38. Hoffman, K. M. 1987. Earwigs (Dermaptera) of South Carolina with a key to the eastern North American species and a checklist of the North American fauna. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 89: 1-14.
  39. Hoffman, R. L. 1969. The Insects of Virginia: No. 1. II. The biotic regions of Virginia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 48: 23-64.
  40. Hoffman, R. L. 1971. The Insects of Virginia: No. 4. Shield bugs (Hemiptera: Scutelleroidea: Scutelleridae, Corimelaenidae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 67: [i]-v, 1-61.
  41. Hoffman, R. L. 1975. The Insects of Virginia: No. 9. Squash, broad-headed, and scentless plant bugs of Virginia (Hemiptera: Coreoidea: Coreidae, Alydidae, Rhopalidae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 105: [i]-iv, 52.
  42. Hoffman, R. L. 1998. On the occurrence of several species of pterostichine ground beetles in Virginia (Carabidae: Pterostichini). Banisteria 12:36-39.
  43. Hoffman, R. L. 1999. Six species of bugs new to the Virginia list (Heteroptera: Coreidae, Lygaeidae, Phymatidae, Miridae). Banisteria 14:24-28.
  44. Hoffman, R. L., and C. R. Parker. 1997. Limnephilus moestus Banks, a northern caddisfly in the Atlantic Coastal Plain (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Banisteria 10:25-26.
  45. Hoffman, R. L., and S. M. Robe. 2000. Fourteen ground beetles new to the Virginia fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Banisteria 16:[36]-41.
  46. Hoffman, R. L., S. M. Robe, and E. L. Quinter. 1998. New locality records for the Dismal Swamp green stink bug (Heteroptera: Penatomidae). Banisteria 12:29-31. [records for North and South Carolina]
  47. Horn, K. F., C. G. Wright, and M. H. Farrier. 1979. The lace bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae) of North Carolina and their hosts. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 257: [i-ii], 1-22.
  48. Hunt, T. N., and J. R. Baker (eds.). 1982. Insect and related pests of field crops: some important, common and potential pests in North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Publication AG-271: [i]-v, 1-214. [treats many North Carolina species]
  49. Kirk, V. M. 1969-1970. A list of beetles of South Carolina. South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, Clemson University, Technical Bulletins 1033 and 1038.
  50. Kosztarab, M. 1969. The Insects of Virginia: No. 1. I. Introduction to the series of Bulletins on the Insects of Virginia, with a literature review. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 48: 1-21.
  51. Matta, J. F. 1974. The Insects of Virginia: No. 8. The aquatic Hydrophilidae of Virginia (Coleoptera: Polyphaga). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 94: [i]-iv, 1-44.
  52. Krombein, K. V. 1953. Biological and taxonomic observations on the wasps in a coastal area of North Carolina (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Wasmann Journal of Biology 10: 257-341.
  53. Krombein, K. V. 1955. Some notes on the wasps of Kill Devil hills, North Carolina, 1954 (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 57: 145-160.
  54. Krombein, K. V. 1958. Biological notes on some wasps from Kill Devil hills, North Carolina, and additions to the faunal list (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 60: 97-110.
  55. Krombein, K. V. 1958. Biology and taxonomy of the cuckoo-wasps of coastal North Carolina (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 84: 141-168.
  56. Krombein, K. V. 1959. Biological notes on some ground-nesting wasps at Kill Devil hills, North Carolina, 1958, and additions to the faunal list (Hymenoptera, Aculeata). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 61: 193-199.
  57. Matta, J. F. 1976. The Insects of Virginia: No. 10. The Haliplidae of Virginia (Coleoptera: Adephaga). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin109: [i]-vi, 1-26.
  58. McCarty, G. 1984. Some injurious insects. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 78: [1]-31.
  59. McCarty, G. 1984. Our common insects. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 100: [181]-216.
  60. McCaskill, V. H., and R. Prins. 1968. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of northwestern South Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 84: 448-453.
  61. McGiffen, K. C., and H. H. Neunzig. 1985. A guide to the identification and biology of insects feeding on muscadine and bunch grapes in North Carolina. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Bulletin 470: iv + 93.
  62. Metcalf, Z. P. 1915. A list of Homoptera of North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 31: 35-60.
  63. Metcalf, Z. P. 1923. Fulgoridae of eastern North America. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 38: 139-230. [treats many North Carolina species]
  64. Metz, L. J., and M. H. Farrier. 1969. Acarina associated with decomposing forest litter in the North Carolina Piedmont. pp. 43-52. In Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Acarology.
  65. Michael, A. G., and J. F. Matta. 1977. The Insects of Virginia: No. 12. The Dytiscidae of Virginia (Coleoptera: Adephaga) (Subfamilies: Laccophilinae, Colymbetinae, Dytiscinae, Hydaticinae and Cybistrinae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 124: [i]-vi, 1-53.
  66. Montgomery, B. E. 1940. The Odonata of South Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 56: 283-301.
  67. Muma, M. H., L. J. Metz, and M. H. Farrier. 1967. New species and records of Phytoseiidae (Acarina: Mesostigmata) from North Carolina forest litter. Florida Entomologist 50: 199-206.
  68. Nuhn, T. P., and C. G. Wright. 1979. An ecological survey of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a landscaped suburban habitat. American Midland Naturalist 102: 353-362. [North Carolina, Wake County, Raleigh, N.C. State University Campus]
  69. Olive, A. T. 1963a. A new aphid genus and species from the southern Appalachians (Homoptera). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 56: 556-559. [Satula brachychaeta, n. sp., from North Carolina]
  70. Olive, A. T. 1963b. The genus Dactynotus Rafinesque in North Carolina (Homoptera: Aphidae [sic]). Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 4: 31-66.
  71. Pavulaan, H. 1998. A new subspecies of Incisalia henrici (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) from the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Maryland Entomologist 4(2): 1-16.
  72. Pechuman, L. L. 1973. The Insects of Virginia: No. 6. Horse flies and deer flies of Virginia (Diptera: Tabanidae). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 81: [i-iv], 1-92.
  73. Rehn, J. A. C., and M. Hebard. 1916. Studies in the Dermaptera and Orthoptera of the Coast Plain and Piedmont region of the southeastern United States. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia 68: 87-314. [treats many North Carolina species]
  74. Robe, S. M., and R. L. Hoffman. 2000. Three true bugs new to the Virginia fauna, including the first record of the family Schizopteridae (Heteroptera). Banisteria 16:41- .
  75. Shaftesbury, A. D. 1934. The Siphonaptera (fleas) of North Carolina, with special reference to sex ratios. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 49(2): 247-262.
  76. Shelley, R. M. 1978. Millipeds of the eastern Piedmont region of North Carolina, U.S.A. (Diplopoda). Journal of Natural History 12: 37-79.
  77. Slasf, M., and C. S. Apperson. 1989. A key to the mosquitoes of North Carolina and the mid-Atlantic states. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Publication AG-412: i-vi, 1-38.
  78. Smith, C. F., R. W. Eckel, and E. Lampert. 1992. A key to many of the common alate aphids of North Carolina (Aphididae: Homoptera). North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin 299: [i]-vi, 1-92.
  79. Sorensen, K. A., and J. R. Baker (eds.). 1983. Insect and related pests of vegetables: some important, common, and potential pests in the southeastern United States. North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service Publication AG-295: [i]-viii, 1-173. [treats many North Carolina species]
  80. Staines, C. L. 1999. Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera) new to North Carolina. The Coleopterist Bulletin 53: 27-29.
  81. Traver, J. R. 1932-1933. Mayflies of North Carolina. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 47: 85-161; 47: 163-236; 48: 141-207.
  82. Wheeler, W. M. 1904. The ants of North Carolina. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 20: 299-309.
  83. Williams, M. L., and M. Kosztarab. 1972. The Insects of Virginia: No. 5. Morphology and Systematics of the Coccidae of Virginia with notes on their biology (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Research Division Bulletin 74: [i]-viii, 1-215.
  84. Wray, D. L. 1945. A new Tetracanthella from North Carolina, with a key to the known species (Collembola: Isotomidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 38: 33-37.
  85. Wray, D. L. 1946. New Collembola from North Carolina. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 41: 79-83.
  86. Wray, D. L. 1948. Some new species and varieties of Collembola from North Carolina. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 43: 44-53.
  87. Wray, D. L. 1953. New North Carolina Collembola. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society 48: 82-83.
  88. Wray, D. L. 1967. Insects of North Carolina. Third Supplement. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, Raleigh. 181 pp. [replaced supplements 1 and 2]
  89. Wray, D. L. 1971. A unique species of the genus Hypogastrura from North Caroline [sic] (Collembola: Poduridae). Entomological News 82: 147-150.
  90. Wray, D. L. 1972. Additions to the North Carolina faunal lists. Entomological News 82: 160.

For additional references on systematic entomology, go to AgNIC: NCSU Bibliographies.